## Bonds: Prices, Yields and Confusion- a Visual Guide

Bonds have been the talk of the financial world lately. One minute it’s a thirty-year bull market, the next it’s a bondcano. Prices are up, yields are down and that’s bad. But then in the last couple of months, prices are down and yields are up and that’s bad too, apparently. I’m going to take some of the confusion out of these relationships and give you a visual guide to what’s been going on in the bond world.

The mathematical relationship between bond prices and yields can be a little complicated and I know very few people who think their lives would be improved by more algebra in it. So for our purposes, the fundamental relationship is that bond prices and yields move in opposite directions. If one is going up, the other is going down. But it’s not a simple 1:1 relationship and there are a few other factors at play.

There are several different types of bond yields that can be calculated:

• Yield to maturity: the yield you would get if you hold the bond until it matures.
• Yield to call: the yield you would get if you hold the bond until its call date.
• Yield to worst: the worst outcome on a bond, whether it is called or held to maturity.
• Running yield: this is roughly the yield you would get from holding the bond for a year.

We are going to focus on yield to maturity here, but a good overview of yields generally can be found at FIIG. Another good overview is here.

To explain all this (without algebra), I’ve created two simulations. These show the approximate yield to maturity against the time to maturity, coupon rate and the price paid for the bond. For the purposes of this exercise, I’m assuming that our example bonds have a face value of \$100 and a single annual payment.

The first visual shows what happens as we change the price we pay for the bond. When we buy a bond below face value (at, say \$50 when its face value is \$100), yield is higher. But if we buy that bond at \$150, then yield is much lower. As price increases, yield decreases.

The time the bond has until maturity matters a lot here, though. If there is only a short time to maturity then the differences between below/above face value can be very large. If there are decades to maturity, then these differences tend to be much smaller. The shading of the blue dots represent the coupon rate that might be attached to a bond like this- the darkest colours will have the highest coupon rate and the lighter colour will have the lowest coupon rates. Again, the differences matter more when there is less time for a bond to mature.

The second animation is a representation of what happens as we change the coupon rate (e.g. the interest rate the debtor is paying to the bond holder). The lines of dots represent differences in the price paid for the bond. The lighter colours represent a cheaper purchase below face value (better yields- great!). The darker colours represent an expensive purchase above face value (lower yields-not so great).

If we buy a bond cheaply, then the yield may be higher than the coupon rate. If we buy it over the face value, then the yield may be lower than the coupon rate. The difference between them is less the longer the bond has to mature. When the bond is very close to maturity those differences can be quite large.

When discussing bonds, we often mention something called the yield curve and this describes the yield a bond (or group of bonds) will generate over their life time.

If you’d like to have a go at manipulating the coupon rate and the price to manipulate an approximate yield curve, you can check out this interactive I built here.

Remember that all of these interactives and animations are approximate, if you want to calculate yield to maturity exactly, you can use an online calculator like the one here.

So how does this match the real data that gets reported on daily? Our last chart shows the data from the US Treasury 10-year bills that were sold on the 25th of November 2016. The black observations are bonds maturing within a year, the blue are those that have longer to run.  Here I’ve charted the “Asked Yield”, which is the yield a buyer would receive if the seller sold their bond at the price they were asking. Sometimes, however, the bond is bought at a lower bid, so the actual yield would be a little higher. I’ve plotted this against the time until the bond matures. We can see that the actual yield curve produced is pretty similar to our example charts.

This was the yield curve from one day. The shape of the yield curve will change on a day-to-day basis depending on the prevailing market conditions (e.g. prices). It will also change more slowly over time as the Federal Reserve issues bonds with higher or lower coupon rates, depending on economic conditions.

Data: Wall Street Journal.

Bond yields and pricing can be confusing, but hopefully as you’re reading the financial pages they’re a lot less so now.

A huge thanks to my colleague, Dr Henry Leung at the University of Sydney for making some fantastic suggestions on this piece.

## Tutorials and Guides: A curated list

This post is a curated list of my favourite tutorials and guides because “that one where Hadley Wickham was talking about cupcakes” isn’t the most effective search term. You can find my list of cheat sheets here. There are a lot of great resources on data science (I’ve included my top picks), so I don’t intend to reinvent the wheel here. This is just a list of my favourites all laid out so I can find them again or point other people in their direction when it comes up in conversation. I’ve also added a number of the “how to” type posts I’ve written on this blog as I often answer an enquiry in that format.

Data Science

Tutorials and videos: General

Puppets teach data science too

• Render a 3D object in R. I have no idea where I would ever use this information in my practice, but it’s presented BY A PUPPET. Great fun.
• DIY your data science. Another offering from the puppet circle on the data science venn diagram.

Econometrics

Statistics

Work Flow

• Guide to modern statistical workflow. Really great organisation of background material.
• Tidy data, tidy models. Honestly, if there was one thing that had been around 10 years ago, I wish this was it. The amount of time and accuracy to be saved using this method is phenomenal.
• Extracting data from the web. You found the data, now what to do? Look here.

Linear Algebra

Asymptotics

Bayes

Machine learning

Data visualisation

Natural Language Processing

I’ll continue to update this list as I find things I think are useful or interesting.

Edit: actually, “that one where Hadley Wickham was talking about cupcakes” is surprisingly accurate as a search term.

## It got wet

NSW got wet this weekend. In our own particular case we lost a large amount of our driveway and several paddocks spontaneously attained lake status. So there was nothing else to do but to poke around and see what I could turn up in the historic record (find yours here).

Some locals recorded up to 250mm in 24 hours this weekend. I thought that was an extraordinary amount until I checked the data (only available up until April this year so far, alas).

It turns out that sometime in the late sixties the local rainfall station recorded an extraordinary 392mm in 24 hours. Now that’s an outlier…!

I’ll invest in a new pair of gumboots just in case.

If you’re into this sort of thing, the plot was done using the “smoothScatter” function in R. It’s a change from the usual time series line chart. I think I’m a convert.